by Stephen Pirsch
The purpose of this booklet is to introduce a quick method to learn the least Spanish needed to get by when traveling in Latin America. This guide targets only the minimum basic phrases needed. Tips are added to lessen your problems. Emphasis will be on trying to politely limit the other persons responses to yes or no etc.
Most of the following material will be in phrases. In English, in Spanish, and in an easy to read pronunciation system (this is the common pronunciation for Mexico and Central America - not proper Castilian). For example:
English: How many pesos please?
Spanish: Cuantos pesos por favor? Cuantos?
Pronunciation: KWAN-tohs PEH-sohs por fa-VOR? KWAN-tohs?
Please make sure you very strongly accent the capitals and speak very forcefully compared to English. If not you will likely get confused looks. Remember you can copy this guide and simply point to the Spanish request. If you are not understood initially, try the simplest question, such as; Cuantos?, instead of, Cuantos pesos por favor?
Consider that, while fun, creating a back and forth language exchange will most likely be confusing for both parties in Latin America. When you really need something keep it simple. If you can not understand their reply slowly repeat your request or try the I DON'T UNDERSTAND section. Everything in here is set up so only a simple reply or no reply will be needed. Be aware that Latin Americans have a more relaxed attitude towards buisness and are sometimes mesmerized by the different looks and mannerisms of foreign travelers, such as blond hair, blue eyes, and strange accents - being politely patient will be worthwhile. Please consider heeding the tips...it is a foreign country. At the end there will be a small dictionary with words you can choose to add to the examples as you need.
Allow me to start with the numbers. You have probably been told repeatedly that you simply have to learn the numbers. Not true. After you ask them , "Cuantos pesos por favor" and you can not understand their very rapid reply, hand them a pen a paper and, simply say:
Write it please.
Escribalo por favor.
ess-KREE-ba-lo por fa-VOR
Always negotiate the fare in advance, repeat it, have him repeat it or, have him write it. Show the driver the bill you are going to pay with and say "cambio - KAHM-b`yo?" (change) If he says no, consider getting another taxi. Consider that it is often much easier to hire a taxi than figure out directions, even if you are driving (we have hired taxis to let us follow them). Taxis are much cheaper and more abundant in Latin America than in the United States. Note that it is often a better deal to hire a taxi to take you (and your surfboards), watch your stuff, and bring you back than to rent a car - tightly fold your money into your leash pocket and pay at the end of your return trip. Renting a car is more expensive in Latin America and they tend to price gouge if there is any problem. See the dictionary at back for words to add after how many pesos for.
How many pesos to Senor Frogs?
Cuantos Pesos a Senor Frogs?
KWAN-tohs PEH-sohs ah sen-YOR frogs?
How much to the beach and back in four hours?
Cuantos Pesos para llevarnos a playa y regreso in cuatro horas?
KWAN-tohs PEH-sohs PA-ra l'yeh-VAR-nohs ah PLA-ya EE reh-greh-SOH en KWA-tro OH-ras?
(see dictionary for choice of words to put after where is the)
Where is the restroom? (or just say, ba`no?)
Donde esta el ba`no?
DOHN-deh ess-TA el BAHN-yo?
Note that sometimes you may have to point at something on the menu and say "Quiero este por favor " (I want this please), not knowing exactly what it is. Try to make sure it is all cooked (todo bien cocido) and drink directly out of sealed containers. It is risky to eat fruits, uncooked vegetables, or drink tap water or ice water anywhere in Latin America. This is mostly because they wash almost everything in contaminated tap water. We usually buy most of our food at grocery stores when in Latin America. We wipe all fruits and vegetables with alcohol.(70-99%) See dictionary for words to add after I want.
I want one bottled water, no glass, no ice please (Latin Americans will often pour it in an ice filled glass)
Quiero una agua en botella, no vaso, no hielo por favor.
KEY-EH-ro OO-na AH-gwa, en bot-TE-ya ?no VA-so no YEH-lo
The menu please.
El menu por favor.
ehl meh-NOO por fa-VOR
I want this please, no salad, no fruit (pointing at menu item).
Quiero este por favor, no ensalada, no frutas
KEY-EH-ro ESS-teh por fa-VOR , no en-sa-LA-da , no FROO-tahs
Sometimes they will bring it with the fruit or salad anyway. If this happens, either pay for it and leave, or keep the plate, and say "carne y tortillas, no mas. Repeta por favor." If you let them take the plate it will likely get scraped off and returned.
Meat and tortillas, no more. Repeat please.
Carne y tortillas, no mas. Repeta por favor.
KAR-neh ee tohr-TEA-ya. no mahs. reh-PEE-ta por-fa-VOR
The check please (Latin Americans generally do not give you the bill until you ask for it).
La cuenta por favor
la-KWEN-ta por fa-VOR
Do not give the ticket agent your money until you are sure you are leaving on the soonest bus. If you ask them for a first class ticket to your final destination and there is no direct bus that day, they will politely tell you no, or give you a time when the direct bus leaves tomorrow etc. It is very likely there will be another first class bus leaving much sooner along the same route. If there is no direct bus leaving within a few hours, look at a map and ask the agent when the bus leaves for the largest cities along the route starting with the next to farthest city. Often, it is faster to make a few transfers at different cities than to wait for a direct bus. Also consider second class buses which are much more frequent. Be aware that there is probably another bus station somewhere nearby with a bus leaving sooner. From 6a to 10p along main routes there is usually some kind of bus going by hourly.
What hour does it leave to Monterrey? Note that if you request they write it and you see 2300 that means 11 PM (24 hour system).
Que hora sale a Monterrey?
keh OH-ra sa-LEY ah mon-te-REY
One ticket to Sayulita please. First class. At eight. One way. Take first class or executive class when possible. Second class is ok for about half a day.
Un bolleto a Sayulita por favor. Primera clase. A la ocho. Ida.
oon boh-LEH-toh ah sigh-you-LEE-tah por fa-VOR. pree-MEH-rah KLA-seh. ah lah Oh-cho. EE-dah.
Executive class. Second class.
Ejecutivo classe. Segunda classe.
ee-HECK-you-TEA-voh KLA-seh. seh-GOON-da KLA-seh
Please tell me where to get off for Santa Cruz?
Digame, por favor, donde debo bajar para Santa Cruz?
DEE-ga-meh, por fa-VOR , DOHN-deh DEH-bo ba-HAR PA ra SAHN ta CRUZ?
Note: If you cannot remember anything else and you are being asked questions you do not understand, simply repeat your destination and show some money - eventually they will probably give you a ticket. Choose a seat near the front and travel Tuesday through Thursday, when you can stretch out on two seats for the price of one and there is room for a surfboard in the baggage compartment (8'5" maximum diagonally. 7'11" fits straight across). If they tell you no, quickly show them some money ($5. - $20.) - they will fit it in. Keep your bus in sight at all times - there are toilets on the buses.
I do not understand
Do you understand?
I speak very little Spanish.
Hablo espanol.muy pocito
Ah-blo ess-pahn-YOHL mwee po-KEE-toh.
Do you speak English?
I need an interpreter please.
Necessito un interprete por favor.
neh-seh-see-TOH oon een-TEHR-preh-teh por fa-VOR.
How do you say this in Spanish? (pointing at object-children love this game)
Como se dice in espanol?
KO-mo say DEE-say en ess-pahn-YOHL?
Being lost in Latin America is almost inevitable and finding your way is much more difficult than in America - so much so, the common response is disbelief. Remember, if you are lost or do not know how to find something it is probably easiest to tell a taxi to take you there. Be aware that Latin Americans think it is rude to not give help to someone who is asking for help. They will give directions when they really do not do not know exactly where something is. This is not done out of meaness. Although there are sentences below for getting directions, it is best to be prepared for roads with no signs and highways with illogical detours. Consider not driving. Try to have detailed maps of all areas you will travel. See www.guiaroji.com.mx Do not show a map to a local so they can point out directions. Locals mostly navigate by landmarks, and will point politely, and uselessly at what seems to them a likely spot on the map. When driving, another trick is to hire a taxi to let you follow him to the central bus station, wait for a bus with the name of your destination, and follow it.
Point the direction to Ixtapa.
Punte la direccion a Ixtapa.
PUN-teh la dee-rek-S`YOHN ah IK-stopa.
Is this the road to Manzanillo?
Es este el camino a Manzanillo?
ess ESS-teh el ka-MEE-no ah MON-zan-eeyoh?
How many streets (kilometers)
Cuantos calles (kilometros)?
KWAN-tohs KAHL-yeh (kee-LOO-meh-tros?
Do you have a room?
Tiene una habitacione?
T`YEH-neh OO-na ah-bee- ta-S`YOHN?
With two beds, hot water, and airconditioning?
Con dos camas,agua caliente, y aire acondicionado
kohn dohs KA-mahs, Ah-gwa kahl-YEN-teh, EE I-reh ah-kohn-dee-s`yo-NA-doh?
I should like to see it.
Me gustaria verla.
meh goo-sta-REE-ya VEHR-la.
Mas barato por favor.
mahs ba-RA-toh por fa-VOR
Note that bargaining is a respected practice in Latin America. Suggest or write another amount and say O.K? If they will not bargain walk away. If they still do not bargain consider going back and paying the first amount. They will not be insulted. At hotels Latin Americans stay in, (not resort hotels) what you see is what you get - this is almost always much cheaper and more basic than the most basic hotel in America. Do not expect that they will fix or add anything, even if they say they will - what ever you need you should get before you pay. Flush the toilet, turn on the lights, check for hot water, lay on the bed. They are used to this.
Most Latin Americans are honest but beware at the gas station. Please make sure they zero the pump before they put the nozzel in your vehicle, and do not leave the vehicle unattended (especailly if there are kids around the pump). If the pump is not zeroed they will try to charge you for the last person's gas and your's. As he is putting gas in your car, try to stand in front of the pump numbers (he may try to block your view) until he takes out the hose. Write down the amount. Make sure you are paying for the amount shown on the pump, and try to prevent him from zeroing the pump until you have paid. Mexican gas is in liters. If they zero the pump and demand a different amount, pay them the correct number and drive away (they will not do anything but yell at you). This scam has been a problem for years in Latin America. Once again, consider not driving in Latin America.
Fill with this please (point to the most expensive gasoline-the cheaper gas is much lower octane than cheap gas in the U.S.).
Llene con este por favor.
yeh-nay kohn EES-teh por fa-VOR
When exchanging money simply put your dollars etc. in the slot and say "pesos por favor" or say what ever other currency such as colones for Costa Rica. Remember that Latin American buisness' are terrible about keeping change so try to not get bills larger than the equivalent of ten American dollars (one hundred Mexican pesos). Often, the best way to get cash is to use the teller machines located at most banks (not at casa de cambios). These work similarly to U.S. teller machines, use the same bank cards, give a good rate of exchange, and relieve the stress of carry large sums of cash. Don't buy travelers checks.
(When going by taxi);
How many dollars to the money exchange (bank).
Cuantos pesos a casa de cambio (banco).
KWAN-tos peh-sohs ah KA-sa day KAHM-b`yo (BAHN-ko).
All one hundred pesos, nothing larger please.
Todo cien pesos, no mas grande por favor.
TOH-doh S`YEN peh-sohs, no mahs GRAHN-deh por fa-VOR.
|black coffee||cafe negro||ka-FE NEH-gro|
|with cream||con creama||kohn KREH-ma|
|with sugar||con azucar||kohn ah-SOO-kahr|
|with ham||con jamon||kohn ha-MOHN|
|well done||bien cocido||b`yen ko-SEE-doh|
|more please||mas por favor||mahs por fa-VOR|
|central bus station||autobus estacion central||ow-toh-BOOSS ess-ta-S'YOHN cen-TRAH L|
|surfboard||tabla por surfiando||TAH-blah por surfy-ON-doh|
|do you have...?||tiene?||T'YEH-neh|
|open ?||abierto ?||ah-B'YEHR-toh?|
|later||mas tarde||mahs TAR-deh|
|what time is it?||que hora es?||keh OH-ra ess?|
In conclusion, this guide contains the crude, workable basics of Spanish for travelers. Copy this guide and go where tourists fear to tread!